(Visited 20 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0 Cellulose is the most abundant biomolecule, but how it’s made still baffles scientists. Soon, though, you may be able to eat it.Two stories in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) talked about cellulose: one, about how it’s made, and the other, about we might remake it into food.Baffling Molecular MachineThe first paper in PNAS is trying to tease out the structure of cellulose synthase (CESA), a complex enzyme that puts together the ingredients into the strong stacks of microfibrils that make wood sturdy and hard to digest. The team of 7 researchers said, “A 3D atomistic model of a plant cellulose synthase (CESA) has remained elusive despite over forty years of experimental effort.” The enzyme is composed of over 500 amino acids. Even this paper doesn’t have the structure all worked out. “Cellulose is nature’s most abundant renewable biomaterial and an important resource for production of biofuels that represent alternatives to fossil fuels,” the press release said, without revealing the details of how it works.A press release from North Carolina State University where one of the researchers works shows it to look like a ring that braids the microfibrils. Lecture notes from the University of Kentucky show the machine climbing a microtubule as it removes the fructose from sucrose, weaving the microfibrils of glucose into a stiff tapestry. Box 1 of a paper from Trends in Plant Science (2012) says that 36 proteins are involved with CESA, adding, “many proteins regulate the synthesis of cellulose, either via a direct interaction… or indirectly… Mutations in any of these genes also lead to reduced cellulose content or crystallinity and cell expansion defects of roots and hypocotyls.” With the structure becoming better known, the enzyme’s processivity (method of operation) is bound to be interesting. The research team studied CESA within cotton fibers. What cotton-picker or cotton-spinner of centuries past would have thought that in his or her hands was a molecular machine that would defy the understanding of 21st century scientists?Swords to PlowsharesThe second paper in PNAS describes a way to convert cellulose into starch. Cellulose, consisting primarily of glucose in chains, has proven indigestible except by bacteria within the stomachs of some herbivores. Cellulose and starch (made of glucose) have the same basic structure, differing only in the linkages between molecules. Finding a way to turn that abundant biomolecule into food would be valuable to feed a growing world population. A team at Virginia Tech found a way to do it using 5 non-natural enzymes derived from fungi, yeast and plant material.The process yielded 30% of amylose, a linear form of starch, with the remainder available for biofuel. It’s environmentally friendly, according to Science Daily; it doesn’t require heat, chemicals or expensive equipment, and can be upscaled for commercial production. And because the enzymes can be recycled with magnetism, it doesn’t generate any waste. The abstract stated, “Next-generation biorefineries based on simultaneous enzymatic biotransformation and microbial fermentation could address the food, biofuels, and environment trilemma.” Earlier this month, PhysOrg reported on attempts to turn xylan, the world’s second most abundant biomolecule, into biofuels. It’s more challenging because of the pentose structure of its sugars gets in the way of extracting the hexose sugars in cellulose that are more easily fermented. The article spoke of this Department of Energy initiative in Biblical terms, likening it to turning “swords to plowshares.”Like the old motivational speech “Acres of Diamonds” emphasized, people are surrounded by treasures if they just knew how to find them and use them. Here is more good Darwin-free science that can actually increase our understanding (and wonder) of the natural world, and at the same time, turn that understanding into technologies that can help humanity.
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Several advantages for buildersThere are a number of ways builders benefit from participation, Rashkin says, but probably none as important as risk reduction.Even builders whose houses simply meet current codes face risks they didn’t five or six years ago because the houses are better insulated and better air-sealed. With less thermal flow through roof and wall assemblies, Rashkin said, houses can’t dry out should they become wet. And tighter houses require carefully designed HVAC systems to keep indoor air healthy.Participating builders have access to well researched “best practices” that minimize moisture and air quality concerns, and they also pick up an important “market differentiator” that can be helpful in attracting buyers, he said.It’s the country’s builders, not the buying public, who hold the key to making high-performance houses more common, Rashkin said.“We believe the innovation comes from the providers who are the experts in their technologies and products,” he said, “so we believe that we”re working with the builders to take the proven innovations from the hub of innovations like Building America and showcase to consumers how much better an experience they will have living in the home of the future.” Finding the ‘sweet spot’ in home constructionZero Energy Ready homes are a step up from those built under DOE’s well-known Energy Star program, with requirements stringent enough to make them energy self-reliant, or nearly so, with the addition of renewable energy systems. Certified houses would typically have a HERS index in the low- to mid-50s.Builders can use either a prescriptive or performance path to meet the requirements. In addition, houses have to meet a number of other benchmarks aimed at water and energy conservation and maintaining health indoor air quality.The government’s target audience are builders already capable of producing Energy Star rated homes who are ready to move up.Jumping from Energy Star performance to something as rigorous as the Passivhaus standard is just too big a leap for most mainstream builders, Rashkin said. The ZER program offers a sort of middle ground–tougher than Energy Star with much better energy conservation numbers but not so daunting as to become essentially unattainable.“That’s the sweet spot for us,” Rashkin said. A market share of 5 percent may not sound like a lot, but to Sam Rashkin, getting the Department of Energy’s “Zero Energy Ready Home” label on that many houses each year could be the tipping point for high-efficiency building in the U.S.Rashkin, chief architect in the Building Technologies Office of DOE’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, says the Zero Energy Ready Home (ZER) program is now entering its third year with improved prospects of turning small numbers into much bigger ones.Like the Challenge Home program that preceded it, the Zero Energy Ready Home project is designed to move building innovations developed through research in the Building America program into houses that actually get built.To date, about 270 builders have signed on to become “partners” in ZER, with 350 houses meeting zero-energy ready certification requirements. But new interest from production builders–including those in Denver’s huge Stapleton development and from Meritage Homes–could extend the program to a much broader audience, Rashkin said.“It’s kind of like gold mining,” he said in a telephone interview. “You’re finding little cracks and crevices and opening them up to be very productive.” Challenges for builders remainHouses in the U.S. are largely built one 2×4 at a time on site by workers with varying degrees of knowledge and skill, but the industry has moved far beyond that model elsewhere. In Scandinavia, for example, highly insulated and air-sealed components are built in factories with virtually no waste, and assembled rapidly on site.That’s the rule rather than the exception, but change hasn’t come quickly to the U.S. homebuilding industry.“The housing industry is perfectly suited to actually miss innovation,” Rashkin said. “It’s about 80,000 builders working independently and you don’t have the primordial soup of engagement and interaction and sharing and working together that you get in industries that are much more consolidated.”Builders who do make the transition to much more rigorous building practices–“admittedly a heavy lift for a lot of builders”–face marketing and sales challenges that rival those on the technical side of construction because they don’t know how to sell homebuyers on features that aren’t obvious.“If you can show off the granite counters and the large master suites and the three-car garage, you’re kind of getting it done,” he said. “It’s much more difficult to sell what you can’t see, and add clarity to something that is admittedly a little bit complicated. Health, durability, comfort, quality–those are all things you can’t see.”On the construction side, there also are hurdles to cross: how to increase the R-values of wall and roof assemblies, how to save water with hot-water distribution systems, how to get air ducts inside the conditioned space.All of that makes the collaborative nature of the ZER program, including online access to the DOE’s Solution Center so important, Rashkin said.Getting houses built correctly in the first place is more important than installing renewables that would make them truly net-zero energy performers.“You can always add on a solar electric system,” Rashkin said, “but I can’t change the wall construction and the wall tightness and insulation. I can’t change the windows. I can’t change the comfort system. I can’t change the plumbing system. What you want to do from our perspective with the [Zero Energy Ready] labels is nail down those 200-year opportunities.”
DefinitionHIV infection is a condition caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The condition gradually destroys the immune system, which makes it harder for the body to fight infections.This article provides a general overview. For more detailed information, see:AIDSAcute HIV infectionAsymptomatic HIV infectionEarly symptomatic HIV infectionAlternative NamesHuman immunodeficiency virus infectionCauses, incidence, and risk factorsThe human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can be spread by the following:Through sexual contact — including oral, vaginal, and anal sexThrough blood — through blood transfusions, accidental needlesticks, or needle sharingFrom mother to child — a pregnant woman can transmit the virus to her fetus through their shared blood circulation, or a nursing mother can pass it to her baby in her breast milkRare ways the virus may be spreadinclude:Accidental needle injuryArtificial insemination with infected semenOrgan transplantation with infected organsBlood banks and orang donor programs screen donors, blood, and tissues thoroughly to prevent the risk of infection. HIV is NOT transmitted to a person who DONATES blood or organs. People who donate organs are never in direct contact with people who receive them. Likewise, a person who donates blood is never in contact with the person receiving it. In all these procedures, sterile needles and instruments are used.HIV infection is NOT spread by:Casual contact such as huggingMosquitoesParticipation in sportsTouching items that were touched by a person infected with the virusPeople at highest risk for getting HIV include:Injection drug users who share needlesInfants born to mothers with HIV who didnt receive HIV therapy during pregnancyPeoplewho haveunprotected sex, especially with people who have other high-risk behaviors, are HIV-positive, or have AIDSPeople who received blood transfusions or clotting products between 1977 and 1985 (before screening for the virus became standard practice)Sexual partners of those who participate in high-risk activities (such as injection drug use or anal sex)See also: AIDSadvertisementSymptomsPeople who become infected with HIV may not have any symptoms for up to 10 years, but they can still pass the infection to others. After you come in contact with the virus, it can take up to 3 months for a blood test to show that you have HIV.Symptoms related to HIV are usually due to a different infection in the body. Some symptoms related to HIV infection include:DiarrheaFatigueFeverFrequent vaginal yeast infectionsHeadacheMouth sores, including yeast infection (thrush)Muscle stiffness or achingRashes of different types, including seborrheic dermatitis and psoriasisSore throatSwollen lymph glandsNote: Many people have no symptoms when they are diagnosed with HIV.Signs and testsThe HIV ELISA and HIV Western blot tests detect antibodies to the HIV virus in the blood. Both tests must be positive to confirm an HIV infection. Having these antibodies means you are infected with HIV.If the test is negative (no antibodies found) and you have risk factors for HIV infection, you should be retested in 3 months.If the HIV ELISA and HIV Western blot tests are positive, other blood tests can be done to determine how much HIV is in your bloodstream.A complete blood count (CBC) and white blood cell differential may also show abnormalities.A lower-than-normal CD4 cell count may be a sign that the virus is damaging your immune system.TreatmentDoctors usually recommend medicine for patients who are committed to taking all their medications and have a CD4 count below 500 cells/mm3 (which is a sign that of a weakened immune system). Some people, including pregnant women and people with kidney or neurological problems related to HIV, may need treatment regardless of their CD4 count.It is extremely important for people with HIV to take all doses of their medications, otherwise the virus may become resistant to the drugs. Therapy always involves a combination of antiviral drugs. Pregnant women with HIV infection are treated to reduce the chance of transmitting HIV to their babies.People with HIV infection need to become educated about the disease and treatment so that they can be active participants in making decisions with their health care provider.Support GroupsSee: AIDS – support groupExpectations (prognosis)HIV is a chronic medical condition that can be treated, but not yet cured. There are effective ways to prevent complications and delay, but not always prevent, progression to AIDS.Almost all people infected with HIV will develop AIDS if not treated. However, there is a small group of people who develop AIDS very slowly, or never at all. These patients are called long-term nonprogressors.ComplicationsCancersChronic wasting (weight loss) from HIV infectionHIV dementiaHIV lipodystrophyOpportunistic infectionsBacillary angiomatosisCandidiasisCytomegalovirus infectionCryptococcal infectionCryptosporidium enterocolitis (or other protozoal infections)Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infectionPneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (previously called Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia or PCP)Salmonella infection in the bloodstreamToxoplasmosisTuberculosis (in the lungs or spread throughout the body)Viral infection of the brain (progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy)Calling your health care provideradvertisementCall your health care provider if you have had a possible or actual exposure to AIDS or HIV infection.PreventionAvoid injecting illicit drugs. If you use injected drugs, avoid sharing needles or syringes. Always use new needles. (Boiling or cleaning them with alcohol does not guarantee that theyre sterile and safe.)Avoid oral, vaginal, or anal contact with semen from HIV-infected people.Avoid unprotected anal intercourse, since it causes small tears in the rectal tissues, through which HIV in an infected partners semen may enter directly into the other partners blood.If you have sex with people who use injected drugs, always use condoms.If you have sex with many people or with people who have multiple partners, always use condoms.People with AIDS or who have had positive HIV antibody tests can pass the disease on to others. They should not donate blood, plasma, body organs, or sperm. They should not exchange genital fluids during sexual activity.Safer sex behaviors may reduce the risk of getting the infection. There is still a slight risk of getting the infection even if you practice “safe sex” by using condoms. Abstinence is the only sure way to prevent sexual transmission of the virus.Use protection when having sexual contact with people you know or suspect of being infected with HIV. Even better, use protection for ALL sexual contact.ReferencesQuinn TC. Epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 392.Sterling TR, Chaisson RE. General clinical manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus infection (including the acute retroviral syndrome and oral, cutaenous, renal, ocular, metabolic, and cardiac diseases. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2009:chap 121.Review Date:5/30/2012Reviewed By:David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine. Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Assistant in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc.
Comments 4 2020 BMW M340i review: A dash of M makes everything better Electric Cars Concept Cars SUVs Crossovers 2020 Kia Telluride review: Kia’s new SUV has big style and bigger value Jan 22 • Our highlights of the 2019 Detroit Auto Show Feb 7 • Chevy’s full-scale Lego Silverado is plastic fantastic in Chicago See All reading • Cadillac shocks Detroit Auto Show with electric SUV preview More From Roadshow Tags Feb 4 • 2020 Kia Telluride: Detroit Auto Show debut turns Super Bowl ad star Detroit Auto Show 2019 2020 Hyundai Palisade review: Posh enough to make Genesis jealous 72 Photos “Cadillac’s EV will hit the heart of the crossover market and meet the needs of customers around the world,” said Steve Carlisle, president of Cadillac. “It will represent the height of luxury and innovation while positioning Cadillac as the pinnacle of mobility.”Our last encounter with Caddy — when we reviewed the 2019 XT4 — impressed with brand’s equipment, style and design, but left us disappointed by its powertrain and performance. Perhaps a jolt of electric torque and efficiency will be just what the brand needs to stay competitive. On the eve of the 2019 Detroit Auto Show, Cadillac has surprised the media with a first look at an upcoming electric crossover SUV, perhaps the first of many electric vehicles to come for the marque.After recently learning that the Cadillac luxury brand would become General Motors’ “lead electric vehicle brand,” we all expected to see an EV unveiled soon, just not this soon. That said, we’ve only so far seen renderings of the electric crossover with few details regarding specs.Enlarge ImageGM is vowing to reposition Cadillac as an EV brand. Cadillac The EV’s name and specific details regarding its powertrain and range will be revealed closer to an also yet-unspecified launch window. So far, what we do know is that it will be based on GM’s upcoming future “BEV3” electric vehicle platform. The electric Caddy crossover will be just the first in a range of vehicles to make use of the platform, which has been designed to accommodate front-, rear- or all-wheel drive configurations. Expect to see BEV3 underpinning a wide range of GM vehicles globally over the next few years.The rest of the Cadillac brand is also ramping up for lineup overhaul, starting with the XT6 crossover which also debuted ahead of the Detroit show this week. Cadillac also expects to debut about a half-dozen new models — roughly one every six months — leading up to 2021, including the next-generation Escalade and an upcoming performance sedan. How many of those will be plug-in vehicles? We’ll just have to wait and see. Detroit Auto Show 2019 Cadillac Share your voice May 14 • History of the Toyota Supra, a Japanese sports car legend 2020 Cadillac XT6: Caddy’s new three-row crossover is heavy on tech • Cadillac
Salman Khan, Katrina Kaif in BharatYouTube ScreenshotSalman Khan is extremely confident not just about the content of his upcoming movie Bharat, but also on the work done by his co-actress Katrina Kaif in it. So much so that the superstar feels Katrina will bag a national award for her performance in the film.At a recent song launch event of Bharat, Salman could not stop praising his co-actress’ work in the film. He is so impressed by her that he went on to say that Katrina will definitely get national award for it.”Katrina will get national award for this film,” he said at the event. When the reporter and Katrina laughed on it, he added,” Seriously. You will see. She is so good in the film, and she has worked so hard in it. So, it is certain that if anyone would get national award, it will be Katrina only”.At the same event, Salman also praised Sunil Grover saying that he is one of the most talented actors he ever came across. Apart from Salman, Katrina and Sunil, the film also features Disha Patani in a key role.Directed by Ali Abbas Zafar, Bharat is one of the most awaited films of this year like most other movies of Salman. The superstar will be seen in multiple avatars in the flick, including that of a 70-year-old man. It is slated to be released on June 5.
IMA Jewels showroomTwitterThe SIT investigation into the multi-crore IMA fraud has seen a major twist after the investigating officers arrested the assistant commissioner of Bengaluru City police (North) LC Nagaraj on Friday for taking bribe from IMA director Mohammed Mansoor Khan.LC Nagaraj, who is the assistant commissioner of the revenue department, had received Rs 4.5 crore bribe for issuing a no-objection certificate (NOC) to Khan in order to raise a bank loan. The SIT sleuths have also arrested a village accountant Manjunath for helping Nagaraj carry out the transactions with Khan. This is the first time that government officials have been arrested in connection to the IMA Ponzi scam, which had defrauded nearly 50,000 of its investors. BCP North Assistant Commissioner (Revenue) LC NagarajTwitterNagaraj was appointed by the Karnataka government as a competent authority to probe over the functioning of IMA after the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) issued a circular against the firm. He knew about the financial irregularities committed by IMA but concealed the facts and submitted a clean report favouring the firm. He has been arrested for misusing his position and for extorting money.Nagaraj, according to sources, had accepted the bribe from Mansoor in three instalments, two instalments of Rs 2 crore each and one of Rs 50 lakh with Manjunath serving as a conduit to transfer the bribe, reports Deccan Herald.He had earlier claimed that he tried to take actions against IMA and Khan by slapping several notices against the company. Nagaraj was arrested from the Karnataka High Court canteen and his house was also raided by the officials.
Kolkata: An elderly woman was allegedly thrown out of her house by her elder son and his wife late on Sunday night.Her son and his wife alleged that the woman practised witchcraft. According to a source, the victim identified as Malati Majhi, aged about 68 years, lived with her two son Mintu and Pintu. Approximately two years ago, Malati arranged Mintu’s marriage. After a few months, his wife Tumpa allegedly started torturing her. She also convinced her husband to believe that Malati practised witchcraft and because of her they are facing a bad time. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: MamataMalati also alleged that Mintu’s in-laws tortured her but her younger son did nothing to help her. She was not provided with food, Malati said. Having no other option she started working as a domestic help in some houses. She earned a little money, which she used to buy food. Sources informed that a few months ago, she was forced to transfer the property in her elder son’s name. Reportedly, they started torturing her even more after her property was taken by her son. Late on Sunday night, she was assaulted and allegedly thrown out of her house. A few local residents saw her taking shelter beside a road and informed the police. Later, cops took Malati to home and detained five people, including both her sons and daughter -in-law. They are being interrogated by the police to find out if other people were involved in this connection.
September 20, 2018 Register Now » 3 min read Free Webinar | Sept 5: Tips and Tools for Making Progress Toward Important Goals Attend this free webinar and learn how you can maximize efficiency while getting the most critical things done right. You’re not just imagining it: You’re getting more robocalls.Next year, almost half of all calls to cell phones will not be business calls or check-ins from loved ones, but scam calls. That grim forecast is according to First Orion, a company that makes caller ID and call-blocking software.In 2017, First Orion estimated that about 3.7 percent of all calls to mobile numbers were spam. Today, they make up about 29 percent, but by early 2019, the company projects that proportion will skyrocket to 45 percent.Some of the numbers for those incoming calls probably look eerily like your own phone number. (For me, the first six digits are often the same as mine.) That’s to trick you into thinking the call might be coming from someone who lives near you, whom you might know. If you’re like me, you’ve wisened up to this trick, dubbed “neighborhood spoofing,” and decline each call.But for those who are fooled and answer, only to realize it’s the same pesky automated call from the same familiar-looking number again, there are tools out there to block these spammy scams, one number at a time.The deluge of unwanted calls disrupts our busy days. As a reporter, I’ve more than once had my audio recording of an in-progress interview paused by an incoming call. Worse, they target individuals based on demographics, with attempts to convince immigrants they’re in legal trouble or fraudulently persuade people to wire them money, posing as utility companies, charities and more.More than half of all complaints the U.S. Federal Communications Commission receives pertain to unwanted calls, The Washington Post reports.There are several ways to combat this onslaught, but be aware that the perpetrators of scams are savvy, and have found workarounds to number blocking and other measures individuals can take. For one, they don’t honor the “Do Not Call” list many households are on to thwart telemarketers. First Orion is in the process of developing new “CallPrinting” technology, which it plans to implement through a major U.S. mobile carrier. Already, T-Mobile provides its subscribers with “Scam Likely” caller ID messages.As Entrepreneur described in a piece on banishing distractions earlier this year, an iPhone user can tap the blue circled “i” symbol next to the number in their recent calls list and select “Block this Caller.” Android users can hold down the number in their recent calls list, then select block. That is, until the next scam call comes in from a different number.Check out Entrepreneur’s Guide to Reducing Unneeded Distractions and Time-Sucks so You Can Be More Productive for more tips on blocking robocalls and managing other types of interruptions.