On June 16, 1976, students in the Southwest Townships (Soweto) outside of Johannesburg, South Africa, stayed home from school to protest the Bantu educational system enacted by the racist apartheid regime in the early 1950s.The Bantu Education Act of 1953, drafted by H.F. Verwoerd, who became prime minister in the 1960s, was also protested by the African population. Those 1950s demonstrations were eventually crushed by the colonial settler regime’s security forces.Nevertheless, the struggle that began that June played a major role in the overall battle that eliminated the apartheid system from South Africa.Bantu education was designed for Africans. Its intent was to convey that the majority population should not pursue equality with whites. One unintentional consequence of that act was to increase enrollment of Africans in the school system, which then provided a base for expressing mass discontent with the system of racist oppression.In 1976, the Nationalist Party government declared that educational instruction would be conducted in English and Afrikaner, the tongue of the country’s dominant oppressors. Students who had been radicalized planned to take action to oppose the language policy and the deplorable educational system.The action committee of the Soweto Students Representative Council reportedly called the June 16 march and initially involved two high schools: Naledi High in Naledi and Morris Isaacson in Mofolo. Other accounts contend that the main focus of activity was Phefeni Junior Secondary, located near Vilakazi Street in Orlando. (sahistory.org.za)Phefeni was near the railway station where many students got off the trains to join the demonstration. The plan was that students from Naledi High were to march from this direction and later mobilize students from the schools on the way toward Morris Isaacson.Students from Morris Isaacson were to march from their school and connect with others until they arrived at a central location. There, they would continue collectively, in a disciplined manner, to Orlando Stadium. Other schools also participated in the demonstration, bringing thousands of youth into the streets.Police encountered young people who were peacefully protesting. They first threw teargas into the crowd and later fired live bullets, initially striking at least four students. After the first massacre, people scattered, enraged by the outrageous killings of youth.Soon enough the West Rand administrative buildings and vehicles were burned to the ground. Stores selling alcoholic beverages were looted and burned. Other clashes with the police took place where dozens of students were murdered near the Regina Mundi church in Orlando and the Esso garage in Chiawelo. When students were halted and dispersed by the police in one locality, they swiftly moved on to other areas.By the end of the uprising’s first day, most of Soweto, including Diepkloof, were impacted by the unrest. The apartheid authorities closed all schools early, and many students headed toward home, while townships were ablaze.As demonstrations spread to Cape Town and other regions of the country, hundreds of people were killed in the following days. The protests spread across the country, joined by more youth and workers.Armed and mass struggles grewThe 1976 strikes and rebellions enabled the banned and exiled national liberation movements to recruit youth fleeing the country, as well as those who remained there. African National Congress leaders escalated efforts to provide political and military training to a new generation of youthful militants.Both the ANC and its breakaway Pan-Africanist Congress of Azania experienced a boost in membership and affiliation. By 1980, the armed struggle escalated: Fuel production refineries were bombed by the ANC on June 1. The attacks on refineries coincided with the apartheid Republic Day.A new generation of resistance took hold, leading to the mass upsurge of the 1980s involving the formation of unions, civic organizations, a cultural revival and more consistent armed struggle, which led to the racist system’s demise by 1994.The apartheid regime attempted to ruthlessly suppress the national liberation struggle through mass incarceration, targeted assassinations and massacres of protesters and strikers. It also conducted cross-border raids into neighboring Frontline States accused of harboring guerrillas from Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK), the ANC’s military wing.ANC offices and training camps in Angola, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Lesotho and Botswana were raided and bombed by the South African Defense Forces.More than 1 million died in the struggle to free South Africa and Namibia, including during efforts to drive out the SADF from southern Angola in the 1970s and 1980s.Socialist Cuba provided hundreds of thousands of volunteers in the fight to defeat the SADF in Angola. The South West Africa People’s Organization in Namibia also waged a heroic campaign from 1960 to 1989, which led to that country’s independence in 1990.Lessons of the liberation movementToday, 22 years since the ANC’s ascendancy to power in South Africa, the struggle is by no means over. Advances have been made in acquiring power, construction of homes, provision of water to township and rural residents, and the expansion of educational opportunities and medical care. However, South Africa’s national wealth has not been transferred to the African majority.Legitimate grievances remain, which are reflected in the ongoing unrest among the African working class and urban residents. Yet the U.S. government — which reaped tremendous benefits from corporate investments in the apartheid system — is still seeking to undermine the ANC government.The ANC is facing formidable challenges in local governmental elections in August. The rand, the national currency, has declined in value. That and rising unemployment rates fueled by capital flight by mining firms and financial institutions have worsened the country’s economic crisis.What lessons can youth in the U.S. and other Western countries learn today from these struggles? Like the Civil Rights and Black Power movements, South Africa’s revolution was based on national and class oppression.In the U.S., African Americans and Latinos/as face high rates of joblessness, poverty, police repression and mass incarceration. Linking the plight of the youth to that of the working class was fundamental to Southern Africa’s liberation movement as a whole.The U.S. 2016 presidential campaign, focused entirely on the two major capitalist parties, the Republicans and the Democrats, is not seriously discussing issues related to oppressed peoples’ social conditions. This reality suggests the need for independent self-organization within a framework such as the ANC, along with its allies in the South African Communist Party and the Congress of South African Trade Unions.Lessons from the Soweto uprising and the struggle that followed — which included the working class and peasantry — should be considered as a way forward to realize self-determination and social emancipation in the U.S. The capitalist relations of production in South Africa and the U.S. must be overturned to obtain genuine liberation and social justice.FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare thisFacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare this
Sign up for our COVID-19 newsletter to stay up-to-date on the latest coronavirus news throughout New York By John DundonLong Island showed its southern side when 15,000 cheering fans packed Nikon at Jones Beach Theater to see Nashville-based country rocker Jason Aldean, who played the seaside amphitheater on June 17.Opening acts on his Six String Circus Tour included A Thousand Horses, a country band also from Nashville, and Thomas Rhett, an up-and-coming vocalist who’s the son of former country star Rhett Akins. Rhett performed some his more popular songs including “Beer with Jesus” and “Die a Happy Man.” After a lengthy intermission, on came the man everyone was there to see.“We just wanted to get right into it. Sorry for making y’all wait so long!” Aldean said as the crowd roared. “I’m not gonna do a lot of talkin’, we’ve got a lot of music left to play.”Aldean’s crew made their way to the stage around 9:20 p.m. and got right into it with “Just Gettin’ Started” off his most recent album, Old Boots, New Dirt. From there, Aldean kept the country-rock theme going with “Gonna Know We Were Here,” another electric guitar centric hit.Make no mistake about it, Aldean is a country superstar, but his performance at Jones Beach had a Rock ‘n’ Roll feel to it. It featured plenty of heavy cords from guitarists Kurt Allison and Jack Sizemore, who at some points stole the show.The backdrop featured a series of diamond-shaped screens flashing graphics, colors, crowd shots and live video from on stage. The lighting colors brilliantly flashed different shades depending on the mood created by Aldean and his road band.The guitarists teamed up for an electric guitar duet that got the crowd the loudest it had been all night. But Aldean went light at times, too. For the die-hard fans, he also played older, twangier songs from the band’s infancy.Or, as he put it: “The stuff we played in front of 25 people at a bar.” His fan base has certainly grown since he dropped his self-titled debut album a decade ago.
Mario Balotelli may have more critics than allies at the moment but he will run into two sympathetic opponents when Liverpool host Hull on Saturday. Pundits have lined up to question the Italian’s decision to trade jerseys with Real Madrid’s Pepe while 3-0 down in a crunch Champions League tie, with his own manager Brendan Rodgers seemingly unimpressed too. It is the latest in a litany of controversies to surround the player, whose reputation precedes him. But Bruce, who has vivid memories of one of the game’s most unique characters, Eric Cantona, from their time together at Manchester United, insists Rodgers must support his occasionally wayward asset to get the best from him. “From the outside looking in, it’s been a difficult start for him but you should always appreciate what you’re going to get (with Balotelli). You’ve got to understand that he’s going to be different,” said Bruce. “You have to weigh that up to start with and once you’ve brought him in you’ve got to bear with him. “He’s not everyone’s cup of tea but there’s no doubt about it, he’s got exceptional ability. “Cantona was supposed to be a troublemaker everywhere he went but once you bring a maverick in, you have to work with them. “When they’ve got that maverick in them, you have to handle them differently. They are not the norm. Tigers boss Steve Bruce and midfielder Tom Huddlestone both feel the Reds striker has been harshly judged on his return to English football. Balotelli’s output has not been what Brendan Rodgers hoped for from a player of his pedigree, one goal in 10 appearances hardly commensurate with his £16million price tag, but a half-time shirt swap has created even more controversy. “You make that decision as a manager the minute you bring them in.” Huddlestone, meanwhile, feels the shirt-swap incident has been overplayed. “Everything around him just seems to be blown out of all proportion,” said the 27-year-old. “Everyone just seems to jump on the bandwagon. I watched the game on Wednesday and you physically see Pepe ask him. “To a fellow professional he’s not going to say ‘no no, because we’re losing, I’m not going to swap shirts with you’. “It puts him in a difficult position and I don’t know what people expect him to do. “I felt for him, it’s not as if he sprinted after Pepe and asked for his shirt.” Indeed, while the practice may seem an alien one in English football it does not carry the same stigma on the continent – as Huddlestone found out earlier in his own career. Like Balotelli, he found himself losing heavily at half-time in a Champions League clash – Tottenham’s trip to Inter Milan in 2010. “I’ve been asked the same thing myself, to be fair. When we were 4-0 down at Inter Milan. “Maicon said it to me, coming down the tunnel. I was only 23 at the time, so I wasn’t going to say no. “I actually did swap shirts, I just made sure I hid it out of the sight of Harry Redknapp and everyone.” Despite standing up for Balotelli, Huddlestone admits his team-mates may not be so charitable if they get the chance to wind the combustible Italian up at Anfield. “It depends on how the game’s going, but I’m sure there are a few who will think about asking him to swap on Saturday,” he laughed. Press Association
The USC women’s volleyball team took care of business in its final pre-conference game of the season, turning back Cal State Fullerton 3-0 Friday night to improve to 10-1.On the attack · Sophomore outside hitter Samantha Bricio notched a team-leading 12 kills in USC’s 3-0 victory over Cal State Fullerton. – Ralf Cheung | Daily TrojanThe Women of Troy honored All-American middle blocker Emily Adams in between the second and third sets, raising her No. 9 to the rafters of the Galen Center. The squad did her proud in sweeping CSUF (25-19, 25-16, 25-23) to improve to 23-0 all-time against the Titans.“We played really well. We had times of greatness and times where we had to step back and take a deep breath, but I think that happens with any young team,” senior libero Natalie Hagglund said.Hagglund recorded 17 digs and was complemented nicely by senior outside hitter Sara Shaw, who notched a season-high 14 of her own. Sophomore outside hitter Samantha Bricio turned in another strong performance with 15 kills, and her freshman counterpart Ebony Nwanebu chipped in 10. Senior middle blocker Alexis Olgard added seven.USC suffered a critical loss, however, when junior setter Hayley Crone injured herself during the second set and had to be removed from the game. Freshman setter Alice Pizzasegola, who had split duties with Crone to start the season, filled in ably with 17 assists to go along with five digs.USC head coach Mick Haley praised the team’s competitiveness following Crone’s injury and a strong push from Fullerton in the latter stages of the match.“We were not in rhythm and we are still struggling to get a rhythm, so we were kind of drained. I really think it was the trajectory of our passes and then losing Hayley [Crone], of course, added to that stress,” Haley said. “But it was a 3-0 win. They had opportunities to come back and get us, but we were able to hold them off, and we were constantly adding points. This game was a confidence builder because we were able to come back and win without Hayley.”The first set saw both teams battle to a 14-14 tie before USC pulled away. Shaw recorded a service ace in between kills by Olgard and Bricio to take the lead at 17-14, after which back-to-back Bricio aces gave the Women of Troy an insurmountable lead. USC sealed the set when junior middle blocker Hannah Schraer knocked down a kill and CSUF committed an attacking error.USC stormed out of the gates in the second frame, posting a 16-9 lead on an Olgard kill. The Titans pushed hard but never came within more than five points of USC the rest of the way. A pair of CSUF attacking errors brought up match point, after which sophomore middle blocker Kiara Wright knocked down a kill to give USC the set 25-16.“We had some players who had the chance to perform. Emily [Young] got to come in and set, which was incredible because she has not had that opportunity,” Hagglund said. “Kiara [Wright] came in and played awesome by hitting some great balls and had some big blocks. It was really cool to see.”The combination of Crone’s injury and a strong Fullerton push made the third set challenging for USC, who at one point fell behind 16-14. Kills by Schraer and Shaw, however, pushed USC to a 22-19 lead, after which junior outside hitter Emily Young knocked down the last of her five kills to seal the match.With crosstown rival No. 11 UCLA coming to the Galen Center this week, Haley stressed that his squad is still not performing at an optimal level, especially with regard to its offense.“We can’t make so many errors,” Haley said. “I thought Fullerton provided us a chance to practice against a different offensive system, and that showed us two and three different timings. So our block jump timing had to be adjusted whether they set back row, front row or quick, and they did a nice job of alternating those. That is something we need to get better at.”Follow us on Twitter @dailytrojan