Category :qafwdfcc

first_imgArchDaily “COPY” Cornerstone 71 Private Dwellings / BFV ARCHITECTESSave this projectSaveCornerstone 71 Private Dwellings / BFV ARCHITECTES ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/940948/cornerstone-71-private-dwellings-bfv-architectes Clipboard Lead Architect: “COPY” Clients:Bouygues ImmobilierFluides, Thermique, Acoustique:ElithisStructural Engineering:Lamalle-FlattetCity:ParisCountry:FranceMore SpecsLess SpecsSave this picture!© Fréderic DelangleRecommended ProductsResidential ApplicationsFastmount®Heavy Duty Panel Fastener at ‘Sandboxes’ HouseResidential ApplicationsAccoyaAccoya® Wood in a Split-Level West Vancouver HomeWindowsKalwall®Facades – Window ReplacementsMetallicsKriskadecorMetal Fabric – Outdoor CladdingText description provided by the architects. This operation is the figurehead the neighborhood renewal on the corner of the Karman street and beside the newly created public square. The project is made of two different architectural entities. The first one is a sculpted volume, white, porous, trimmed, divided into two elements arranged on a common and uniting base.Save this picture!© Léa DenièleSave this picture!ElevationSave this picture!© Fréderic DelangleOn the other hand, the second part of the project is composed of smaller and vertical volumes with different heights and colors, looking at the inner part of the plot and covered with double-slope rooftops that outline the building silhouette. The buildings, including balconies, are covered with a delicate metallic net protecting the residents’ privacy without depriving them of natural light.Save this picture!© Fréderic DelangleSave this picture!Floor planSave this picture!© Léa DenièleThe contrast between the two architectural entities is emphasized by the plentiful vegetation at the center of the plot.Save this picture!© Fréderic DelangleProject gallerySee allShow lessMonte Uzulu Hotel / At-te + Taller LU’UMSelected ProjectsLan Chuang Space / BEING ARCHITECTSSelected ProjectsProject locationAddress:2 Rue Labois-Rouillon, 75018 Paris, FranceLocation to be used only as a reference. It could indicate city/country but not exact address. Share Photographs:  Fréderic Delangle, Léa Denièle Save this picture!© Fréderic Delangle+ 20Curated by Paula Pintos Share Projects ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/940948/cornerstone-71-private-dwellings-bfv-architectes Clipboard Architects: BFV ARCHITECTES Year Completion year of this architecture project 2019 France Apartments Photographs Year:  Jean Bocabeille Cornerstone 71 Private Dwellings / BFV ARCHITECTES CopyApartments•Paris, France CopyAbout this officeBFV ARCHITECTESOfficeFollow#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousingApartmentsParisOn FacebookFrancePublished on June 11, 2020Cite: “Cornerstone 71 Private Dwellings / BFV ARCHITECTES” 11 Jun 2020. ArchDaily. Accessed 10 Jun 2021. ISSN 0719-8884Browse the CatalogAluminium CompositesTechnowoodHow to Design a Façade with AluProfile Vertical ProfilesGlassMitrexSolar GreenhouseMetal PanelsAurubisOxidized Copper: Nordic BrownDoorsEGGERWood Laminate Doors in Molecular Plant Science InstituteStonesCosentinoSurfaces – Silestone® Nebula SeriesWall / Ceiling LightsLouis PoulsenLamp – LP RiplsWood Boards / HPL PanelsBruagRoom Dividers – Partition Wall MDFStonesNeolithSintered Stone – Mar del PlataWindowspanoramah!®ah! SecurityPanels / Prefabricated AssembliesULMA Architectural SolutionsMIS Facade PanelCarpetsFabromont AGTextile Floor Covering – Orbital® 07 COLORpunkt®LightsNorka lightingLuminaire – BelfastMore products »Save想阅读文章的中文版本吗?巴黎转角公寓71号 / BFV ARCHITECTES是否翻译成中文现有为你所在地区特制的网站?想浏览ArchDaily中国吗?Take me there »✖You’ve started following your first account!Did you know?You’ll now receive updates based on what you follow! Personalize your stream and start following your favorite authors, offices and users.Go to my streamlast_img read more

first_img Melanie May | 28 June 2018 | News Tagged with: Trusts Seventh edition of The Guide to New Trusts published The Directory for Social Change has published its seventh edition of The Guide to New Trusts.The DSC‘s book holds the details of over 100 new grant-makers, with around 800 new grant-makers reviewed for the selection. Over 90% of the grant-makers listed give to general charitable purposes all over the UK, meaning charities from across the sector are eligible to apply to them for funding.This edition saw a rise in grant-makers supporting social welfare, with an increase of 18% in those supporting people with disabilities, and a 28% rise in funders supporting older people, compared to the previous edition).Charities specifically concerned with education, health and social welfare can also apply for the funds targeted to their particular causes. To help with the search process, this edition has two new indexes: for charitable causes supported, and geographical area of benefit.It also includes facts about the grant-making charities’ policies, contact details and application guidelines, where they are available, and latest social media information on each charity, where available.The Guide to New Trusts is available for £50 via the DSC.  139 total views,  1 views today Advertisementcenter_img AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis15 About Melanie May Melanie May is a journalist and copywriter specialising in writing both for and about the charity and marketing services sectors since 2001. She can be reached via www.thepurplepim.com.  140 total views,  2 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis15last_img read more

first_imgLarry ColburnOn Dec. 13, Larry Colburn died. He was the last survivor of a U.S. helicopter crew who were among the best of the heroes of the Vietnam War — on the U.S. side. This is their story.It was March 16, 1968. A U.S. helicopter gunship was ready to do battle with Vietnamese guerrillas. It hovered over My Lai that morning. Its task was to draw enemy fire and expose their positions.What the three members of that helicopters observed — and it took a while for them to realize what was going on — was one of the worst massacres of a U.S. war of aggression and occupation filled with atrocities and massacres. The officer in charge of the company attacking a Vietnamese village, Lt. William Calley, had ordered his troops to set fire to the homes and to kill everyone in the village.In the course of the day, more than 500 Vietnamese civilians were killed, almost all elders, women and children, with few or no guerrillas. This carnage became known as the My Lai massacre.When the helicopter crew — Colburn, Chief Warrant Officer Hugh Thompson and copter crew chief Glenn Andreotta — realized what was going on, they did their best to stop it. Thompson seized the initiative, landed the copter, jumped out and confronted Calley and the platoon he commanded. Thompson threatened that his gunner would fire on them if they continued to kill Vietnamese civilians.Colburn was handling the machine gun pointed at Calley and his troops. He never had to fire. Calley backed down.This action rescued the surviving Vietnamese villagers. Up to that point the helicopter crew were not war resisters or committed radicals. They were just decent human beings. But to act on that was enough to require real bravery. In the best tradition of soldier-resisters, they turned their guns around on the real enemy.Calley was convicted of premeditated murder and sentenced to life, but President Richard Nixon moved him to house arrest, and he only served 3.5 years of his sentence. He lives in Miami now.The bravery of the helicopter crew that stopped Calley’s mass murder was mirrored and multiplied by thousands of U.S. soldiers, sailors, air force members and Marines who began to resist the war from 1968 until the last U.S. troops were withdrawn in 1973. They avoided combat with the Vietnamese troops, refused orders to fight and, even in extreme cases, killed their own racist or too-aggressive officers and sergeants.Catalinotto is the author of “Turn the Guns Around: Mutinies, Soldier Revolts and Revolutions,” available in January.FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare thisFacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare thislast_img read more

first_img Democratic Republic of CongoAfrica Condemning abuses Judicial harassmentFreedom of expression February 18, 2021 Find out more Congolese reporter wounded by gunshot while covering protest in Goma Journalist arrested on provincial governor’s orders Organisation Democratic Republic of CongoAfrica Condemning abuses Judicial harassmentFreedom of expression Reporters Without Borders (RSF) condemns the court’s decision in an absurd libel case heard in butembo, Nord-Kivu, in March against newspaper publisher Christian Kahindo Muke and urges the judicial authorities to overturn his iniquitous conviction. News The publisher of the bimonthly entitled Rafiki (which means “Friend” in Swahili), Christian Kahindo Muke has been in hiding ever since five men armed with AK47 rifles raided his home on the evening of 29 August in an attempt to arrest him for non-payment of his 1,500 US dollars fine. Quite a muscular reaction when one considers that judicial authorities never notified Muke about the fine in the first place and that his lawyer only learned of it when he went to the court to enquire about the reason for the heavy-handed raid on his client’s home. “Such measures highlight the utter iniquity of the Butembo court’s rulings,” RSF said. “How can you arrest someone for non-payment of a fine of which he was never notified? The Congolese judicial system’s limited resources are no excuse. Christian Muke has clearly been subjected to political harassment. We call on the court to quash his conviction and drop all proceedings against this journalist.” Muke was convicted over a December 2015 article about the links between Hamza Baghuma Kasereka, a Muslim cleric, and the Allied Democratic Forces, a Ugandan rebel group responsible for many massacres in and around Beni, a city 50 km north of Butembo. The absurdity of the conviction has been highlighted by the fact that the Nord-Kivu military operational court in Beni is currently trying Kasereka along with many ADF members, who have testified that Kasereka recruited them. The Democratic Republic of Congo is ranked 152nd out of 180 countries in RSF’s 2016 World Press Freedom Index. February 24, 2021 Find out more News RSF_en center_img to go further August 31, 2016 – Updated on September 14, 2016 DRC: Journalist hounded over absurd libel case fine Reporter jailed in DRC for allegedly defaming parliamentarian Help by sharing this information News News Follow the news on Democratic Republic of Congo Receive email alerts Credit : Radiomotofm.info/Christian Kahindo Muke February 16, 2021 Find out morelast_img read more

first_imgTony Morrison/ABC News(WASHINGTON) — In the wake of last month’s deadly shooting at a Florida high school, hundreds of thousands are marching in the nation’s capital and at rallies across the country today, demanding change so that the carnage in Parkland, Florida, will “Never Again” take place. Thousands of students, teachers, parents and more activists came out for today’s “March for Our Lives” event in Washington, D.C., and at sister rallies around the country.“Good Morning America” asked activists on the ground why they chose to march today.Here is what they said, in their own words. “I am marching for my friends that passed, and all children that have been taken from their families and friends because of gun violence,” Lauren Hogg, a ninth-grader at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, Florida, told ABC News.Lauren, who is the sister of student activist David Hogg, continued: “I am marching because of the empty desk in my classroom where my friend once sat and the unfulfilled conversations about our futures that we shared. I am marching for my unsaid goodbyes and the future of America. I hope that things will change and one day we can once again feel safe in the places in which we should already be able to feel safe such as schools.” Rebecca Boldrick, the Hoggs’ mother, told ABC News, “As a mother and a teacher I am marching because our schools need to return to being the sanctuaries they should be.“I don’t want there to be any more senseless mass killings by assault rifles,” she added.Brianna Fisher, also a student at MSD, said she is marching “so students can return to a place of safety and learning rather than violence and war.” Jeremiah Godby, 24, said he stepped out in the nation’s capital today because “enough is enough.”“This is not about Democrat or Republicans, this is about coming together and about finding solutions,” he added. “We are stronger when we are together and when we are united.”Riyo, 15, a high school student marching in D.C., said she was out today because “no student should ever be afraid to go to school.”Miami, Florida: ‘Enough is enough’Much closer to Parkland, scores of activists stepped out at an event in Miami to show solidarity to those marching in the nation’s capital today.Genesis Davila, the current Miss Florida USA, stepped out at a rally in Miami today, saying she is there “supporting all the children.”“Enough is enough,” Davila added.Briana Borres, also in Miami, told ABC News, “I’m here to march for all of those who have no voices left and we are here to support those who can’t support themselves.”The rally in Miami also had students and alumni of Marjory Stoneman Douglas in attendance, including Catherine Zhao, who told ABC News, “I am here because I am a proud member of the Stoneman Douglas graduating class of 2014.”Elsewhere around the countryThousands of activists also stepped out at sister rallies around the country, slamming senseless gun violence and showing solidarity with students of Marjory Stoneman Douglas high school.Hamdia Ahmed, 18, in Portland, Maine, told ABC News that she is out marching because “we are here to stand up against gun violence and for our leaders to step up to end gun violence.” In Albany, New York, Kaelyn, 17, said she is marching “because I realize that I have a voice and that I have the power to make a change in this country.”Katie Evans, 18, an activist in Little Rock, Arkansas, told ABC News she is out today “marching against gun violence.” “I am marching for the safety in our schools, churches, just in general, all students, all people deserve to be safe,” she added.Copyright © 2018, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.last_img read more

first_imgLas Vegas Metropolitan Police(LAS VEGAS) — Las Vegas police are looking for a possible kidnapping victim and the man who attacked her, after a doorbell camera captured video of the apparent assault. A resident in a neighborhood south of downtown reported the incident to police after their doorbell camera recorded the incident shortly after midnight on New Year’s Eve.In the video, a woman is seen running up to the house, where she bangs on the door and screams for help. In the background, a man jumps out of a white sedan and sprints up to the woman. He grabs her and throws her to the ground, then kicks her in the stomach, sending her tumbling down the steps. “Why would you do that?” he shouts, swearing at her as she sobs.He then pulls the woman to her feet, shouting “Get in the car” and swearing at her again, before he drags her down the walkway into the car. The full video, which contains violence and coarse language, was posted to YouTube by Las Vegas police. The vehicle involved is believed to be a white Hyundai Sonata with a sunroof, according to police.Authorities say they don’t know either the identities or the current location of the victim and suspect. A cash reward is being offered for anyone providing information through Crime Stoppers of Nevada that leads directly to an arrest or indictment, Las Vegas police said. Copyright © 2020, ABC Audio. All rights reserved.last_img read more

first_imgRentokil Initial and Wolverhampton & Dudley Breweries are to startrecruiting using interactive digital TV after signing up with the Job Channel. W&DB aims to recruit staff for its 550 unbranded pubs and restaurantsand has launched a three-month trial with the Job Channel. The firm is looking to fill a range of positions through the interactivesystem, which will reach an audience of around 16 million. Potential candidates will be able to browse the vacancies and apply viatheir TV or through the company’s SMS text message service. Kristy Rowlett, group recruitment manager for the retail division atW&DB, said the firm hoped to use the scheme as part of its overallrecruitment strategy. “We’ve got a three-month trial and we’ve had an excellent response.We’re always looking at new ways of attracting people and the proof will be ifwe make any appointments because of this,” she said. Five Rentokil divisions have also signed up with the Job Channel, as part ofa 12-month campaign. The independent firms, responsible for around 1,000 staff,want to fill positions around the country. Divisional manager Mark Godfrey said, “To rely solely on traditionalrecruitment methods is inefficient and interactive television is an effectivesolution.” Previous Article Next Article Related posts:No related photos. Comments are closed. Companies tune in to interactive TV to find staffOn 8 Jan 2002 in Personnel Todaylast_img read more

first_img Google+ Twitter Twitter By Brooklyne Beatty – January 29, 2021 0 252 Previous articleFood Bank of Northern Indiana releases food distribution schedule, Feb. 2-4Next articleAlmost 2,000 without power near downtown Elkhart Friday Brooklyne Beatty Google+ Pinterest Pinterest South Bend house fire leaves two families displacedcenter_img TAGSduplexfirehouseIndianaOlivePhilippa StreetSouth BendWestern WhatsApp (Source: https://goo.gl/4hRlFI License: https://goo.gl/OOAQfn) Two families are displaced after a house fire in South Bend Friday.Fire crews were called to the duplex on Philippa Street, near Olive and Western, around 2 a.m.The fire was contained within 15 minutes, but had already caused severe damage to both homes, according to ABC 57 News.The cause of the fire has not yet been released. Facebook WhatsApp Facebook IndianaLocalNewslast_img read more

first_imgStories of learning, teaching, and turning points, in the Experience series.For decades, Walter Willett has worked to improve public health by improving diets, most often through research, but sometimes by picking fights: over trans fats, the food pyramid, red meat. Data quality and thick skin have served him well.Born in 1945 into a Midwestern family with deep ties to farming, Willett did undergraduate study at Michigan State University before getting his M.D. from the University of Michigan. He came to Harvard in the 1970s to continue his medical training and was drawn to the potential for epidemiology to reveal root causes of ailments afflicting his patients, and thereby to prevent them.The Nurses’ Health Study, an analysis of diet, lifestyle, and health, was an early eye-opener. Willett eventually launched follow-ups, including the Nurses’ Health Study 3 in 2010. His broad outline for healthy living is by now familiar: Don’t smoke, exercise regularly, avoid added sugar and processed foods. He is the Fredrick John Stare Professor of Epidemiology and Nutrition and chair of the Harvard School of Public Health’s Nutrition Department.Q: I thought we’d start at the beginning. I read that your grandfather was a dairy farmer, is that right?A: Yes.Q: But your father was not?A: He did work in dairy actually. But he was a Ph.D. reproduction physiologist and worked at the American Foundation for the Study of Genetics in the 1950s, when we were living in Madison [Wisconsin]. That meant dairy herd improvement, how to get more milk per cow. So he did research on reproduction biology.Q: Did you grow up in Madison?A: We started living on the actual research farm. I started off in a one-room schoolhouse where there was kindergarten through eighth grade in one room. We moved closer to town so I could go to first grade.Q: You went to Michigan State for undergrad then Michigan for your M.D.; what made you decide to go into medicine?A: I started off studying physics. We had a close family member who was chair of the Physics Department who got me interested. That was wonderful because it was exact and precise. One of the central aspects of physics is measurement and the study of measurement error, which I have found useful right up to today. [But] I realized that the faculty were mostly working in laboratories in the basement of the physics building, doing seemingly arcane things that felt rather disconnected from the world. I was more interested in seeing the world … so I switched over to food science. [I was] inspired by one faculty member whose course I took, Georg Borgstrom, who was looking at the sustainability of our food supply globally. It got me interested in global issues in food production. Food science was connected with many things of interest to me. I had been a member of the 4-H Club vegetable growers and actually won quite a few blue ribbons at county fairs. Food was interesting. I paid my college tuition at Michigan State growing vegetables. That’s when college tuition was $109 a term, so I didn’t have to make massive profits, but it did keep me interested in food and food production.Q: Was that a home garden?A: We lived in a semi-rural area and it turned out the farm next door was owned by someone who was retired. They let me use their land and farming equipment.Q: How many acres did you farm?A: It was probably about 3 acres.Q: All of this happened during your undergraduate years?A: High school and undergraduate years, but mostly undergraduate. I was interested in the health interface with nutrition and with food science, and decided pretty much at the last minute to go to medical school. I didn’t actually graduate from Michigan State. After three years, I went to the University of Michigan because Michigan State didn’t have a medical school at that time.Q: Did you eventually get your bachelor’s degree or go right into the medical program?A: I went right into the medical program. They did allow you to do that.Q: So you were already interested in nutrition by the time you went to study for your M.D.?A: Yes. I had [studied] nutrition from different aspects, food production and food science. I have found it useful to have a food science background, because most nutritionists don’t really understand food and food processing and lots of things that go on behind the scenes before it shows up at a grocery store and on a plate. The food science world has been very good in improving the sanitation aspects, the microbial contamination aspects, of food. But, for the most part, processing has otherwise degraded our food supply in an unfortunate way.Q: Did your interest stem from your family’s involvement in farming?A: It does come from my family’s involvement in agriculture. My father was interested in biology and, in fact, he did the first ova transplant. That wasn’t done in humans, it was done in dairy cows: fertilized ova transplanted to a different cow. I saw that calf being born in our front yard.Q: So surrogate parenting started there …A: Yes, in our front yard. So, there was a strong interest in biology [in my family], and we always had a big home garden. I was in 4-H — that was a family tradition as well — and that got me interested in food, food growing, and production.Q: At what point did you begin to feel that there were problems with the food supply, with diet? Was that part of this early phase or did that come later?A: Well, at that time, the general perception was that the problems were more of undernutrition. And that was true, at least on a global basis. We lived in a college community and we always had quite a few foreign students over to our home. Some of them did work in nutrition and they helped get me interested further in nutrition, especially the global aspects of it. During the 1960s, it was thought that protein undernutrition was most important. There was also a general interest in nutrition being a contributing factor to heart disease during that period of time. I took every opportunity to work on nutrition-related research projects during breaks and summers while I was in medical school. I was [also] the subject of nutrition studies. To cut expenses, I found four other classmates and the five of us rented a four-person apartment. We rotated each one of us through the clinical research unit as subjects. So there was always one of us living in the hospital and being the subject of a feeding experiment. Q: Did you know what the experiment was?A: It was somewhat mundane in terms of defining dose-response relationships between vitamin C intake and blood level. We had to eat a totally restricted diet for weeks at a time there in the hospital.One very formative experience was working with a faculty member conducting a small survey in an Indian community in the upper peninsula of Michigan, the Potawatomi tribe. A classmate and I spent a summer up there collecting dietary data, blood measurements, and anthropometric measurements, which was actually very useful to me. We read this paper from [Martha] Trulson and Bertha Burke at the Harvard School of Public Health Department of Nutrition about how to collect dietary data using a food frequency questionnaire. We used that and it turned out to be a very effective way to collect a lot of information about what people were eating. So it did open my eyes to the fact that you could collect dietary data very efficiently. What we learned from structured dietary questionnaires was interesting, but it was also just shocking that about 50 percent of the adults had diabetes. It turns out that this was what was happening to Native American populations across the country. And it raised the obvious question of: “What’s going on? Why do half the adults have diabetes?”‘You have to develop thick skin, I guess. You can get attacked for things that are just completely untrue.’Q: Did they know what was going on?A: No, it was not at all clear. That’s been a background question as our work has unfolded. I think now we understand that much better. It’s clearly related to a susceptibility that isn’t manifested until you have an adverse diet and lifestyle, but also now it’s pretty clear that the foods people were eating were really fuel for diabetes. [The foods] were mainly from the U.S. Department of Agriculture food surplus program, and turn out to be those that will result in high rates of diabetes.So that was a very formative experience. Then I came to Boston to do an internship and residency in internal medicine at Harvard [Medical] Services at Boston City Hospital. There I met really fantastic faculty members: Ron Arky — Ron was the first attending that I had when I came to Boston; Frank Speizer, who I still work with; Charlie Davidson, who died a couple of years ago and who was very interested in nutrition. So it was quite possible to keep an interest in nutrition alive while I was an intern and resident here, though there wasn’t much occasion for research. One of the other projects I did while I was in medical school was to spend an elective in Tanzania. I really enjoyed that and managed to go back to Tanzania and teach for three years at the University of Dar es Salaam.I forgot to mention that while I was in residency here, the Vietnam War was going on … I was a conscientious objector and had to do alternative service, which I did working in a health center in East Boston. It was mostly evening clinics, so I could do an M.P.H. here half-time, which was a great experience. It greatly broadened my view of the world and health. [And when I] went to Tanzania, it turned out that they needed people to teach public health there, so I switched from teaching internal medicine to doing that.Q: So, this was after you graduated from the School of Public Health?A: Right, yes.Q: Tell me about Tanzania.A: Well, that was great. I started off teaching internal medicine, which I enjoyed. With internal medicine here, you largely help people maintain function. But in Tanzania, most people had curable conditions. It was fun to see patients get up and walk away, walk out of the hospital after a few days. But also I appreciated that the bigger challenges, as they are here, were public health issues. So I came to appreciate how much epidemiology could offer. I came back and did a doctoral degree in epidemiology after three years in Tanzania. I was fortunate to work with many great people but especially Brian MacMahon, who was the founder of chronic disease — noncommunicable disease — epidemiology. It offered a perspective we didn’t get in medical school. When someone had a condition like breast cancer, almost never did someone ask why, or if they got cataracts — why? Once you started asking those questions, lots of interesting hypotheses emerged. As it turned out, many of those were related to diet and nutrition. I remember one day, Brian said, “It looks like diet might be an important contributor to breast cancer,” which had never crossed my mind before. At that point in time, very few people were looking at that. Those who were thought that diet might be important in a general way, but it was viewed as too complicated and too difficult to study. It was a relatively untouched area.Q: Had you begun working on the Nurses’ Health Study by then?A: Yes. I started when I came back [in the late 1970s]. Frank Speizer was the PI [principal investigator]. I met him as an attending at City Hospital. In the early days, I and one other person ran the Nurses’ Health Study on a day-to-day basis. I did my thesis on smoking and heart disease [using data from] the Nurses’ Health Study. I realized that this could be an ideal setting in which we could study diet in relation to long-term health outcomes, including heart disease and cancer, and other conditions as well. There was a lot of interest in diet and heart disease in the Nutrition Department here. People were being given strong advice on what to eat and what not to eat — for example, to really avoid eggs because they’re high in cholesterol and the cholesterol levels in blood were recognized as one of the most important risk factors for heart disease. Given the strength of the dietary advice, you would have thought there were half a dozen studies showing that people who ate more eggs had higher risk of heart disease, but there were zero such studies. It was a hypothesis, a guess, but there was never any qualification [saying] that it’s our best guess without direct evidence. The recommendation was repeated enough that it became etched in stone. There was one small study on eggs and heart disease from Framingham that showed no relationship, but it was very small. It seemed to me that if we were going to be making recommendations and giving dietary guidance, we needed an empirical basis for doing that, because we could be wrong. The Nurses’ Health Study seemed like it could provide that opportunity. It included a large number, over 100,000 highly motivated participants who could provide high-quality data. And so, in the late ’70s, I worked on pilot testing using standardized questionnaires to collect information on diet. And in 1980, after a series of pilot studies, [we] administered the first dietary questionnaires.Q: So diet information was not part of the original Nurses’ Health Study?A: The Nurses’ Health Study was originally narrowly focused on oral contraceptives and breast cancer, with a few added questions on smoking and weight and a few other things. It was a very slim study. In thinking about diet, it was also apparent that we needed to consider physical activity at the same time, and also include questions about alcohol, which were thought to be too sensitive to be asked on the original questionnaire. So we embedded questions on that, along with other beverages. There were a lot of gaps we filled in to give a better picture of the lifestyles of participants.Q: Have you been at Harvard since then?A: Yes, I did my doctorate degree when I came back from Tanzania in 1977, then a postdoc and assistant professorship.Q: How would your career have been different if you had not gotten onto the Nurses’ Health Study?A: It’s hard to know. The Nurses’ Health Study was intrinsically part of my experience here as a doctoral student. I did continue to do some moonlighting, practicing internal medicine at the East Boston Health Center to support a family while being a student and a postdoc. I could have continued down a primarily clinical pathway, which I enjoyed. But I came to realize that I couldn’t be the kind of internal medicine doctor I wanted to be and also be a leading researcher at the same time. It was certainly beyond my capacity, because both are very demanding.Q: What was the attraction of research over a clinical career?A: What I found with clinical internal medicine was that I was seeing so many problems over and over again: congestive heart failure, hypertension, and diabetes. That was somewhat frustrating, because you never cure anyone of these conditions. Certainly, you can help people maintain a better quality of life for a long time, but it seemed to me it would be much better if we could prevent or delay the onset of these conditions.Q: And where are we in that process now? Clearly we know more.A: We’ve come a long way in many of these areas. For example, we published in the New England Journal [of Medicine] about 10 years ago an analysis showing that with just moderate diet and lifestyle changes we could prevent about 80 percent of heart disease, and in another paper, 90 percent of type 2 diabetes. So these are largely preventable conditions. For breast cancer, our percentages are lower, but we’ve made some pretty good dents in understanding avoidable causes for breast cancer. For colorectal cancer, quite a large fraction can be prevented by diet and lifestyle. So we’ve come a long way and life expectancy has increased quite a bit since the 1960s. The rates of heart disease and cardiovascular mortality have fallen over 60 percent since that time. But there’s still a huge gap between what we know and what actually is being put into practice. In the same paper that showed that heart disease is about 80 percent preventable, only about 4 percent of the participants in the Nurses’ Health Study were practicing all the elements of a healthy lifestyle. So there are huge gaps between the potential for prevention and reality, and growing gaps by economic and racial divisions in this country. Part of the population, those with more education and resources, has been very efficiently taking up this information and incorporating it into their lives, but other parts of the population have had minimal changes. In some groups, life expectancy has gone down for complex reasons related to education and poverty. So we’ve made huge progress in understanding. We’ve made, on average, considerable progress in improving diets and lifestyle, but there’s still a lot to learn and even more to do in terms of implementation.Q: So we have a good idea of the important steps to take, but we have these enormous obesity and diabetes epidemics under way. Is our health, as it relates to nutrition, better now than it was in the ’70s?A: Yes it is, on average, but the average hides massive variability. Our nutrition is better and we’ve benefited from that [in terms] of life expectancy. Back in the ’50s and ’60s, it was almost routine that men had a massive MI [myocardial infarction, or heart attack] in their 50s and often died from it. It was the big one that people expected at age 55. That kind of event happens rarely now.Q: Your work has touched so many different areas, hundreds and hundreds of papers, is there a particular one that, when you think back on your career, was the best, or most important, or most enduring?A: Probably some of the most important papers were not ones that got the most attention. They were more methodologically oriented, showing that, yes, we can measure diet in large populations using the techniques we’ve used in the Nurses’ Health Study, which became the foundation for a lot of other work. But in terms of more substantive topics, probably the work on trans fats has been the most interesting and satisfying and has gone though the implementation cycle now pretty well. I was interested in trans fats from the time we started the dietary assessment work in the ’70s. At that time, [there was] laboratory work documenting the importance of prostaglandins [a kind of fat molecule] in many physiological processes. What I realized, partly from my food science background, is that we were taking natural vegetable oils — corn oils and soybean oils — and partially hydrogenating them. These oils were mostly made up of essential fatty acids that were the precursors of the prostaglandins and we were twisting the shape of these molecules. That seemed like a really risky thing to be doing. When you change the shape of those essential molecules, they will not have the same function. It was quite unpredictable what that would do, but it’s unlikely when you throw sand in a finely working Swiss watch, that it will work better.Data collected over the past few decades should soon start to yield more insights on mental and cognitive function, said Willett, pictured at his Cambridge home.Q: You called attention to that. It has worked through the regulatory process and recently the government took action.A: Trans fats had been in the category called GRAS, or generally recognized as safe. And the FDA has recently said that the evidence no longer supports the conclusion that trans fats are generally recognized as safe. They could have said that 15 years ago, but they finally said it. And there’s a 60-day comment period, but no one would dare say they’re generally recognized as safe today. That means they can’t be added to foods without special approval, which will effectively eliminate trans fat in our food supply. That was quite a long process because we had to create a database — no one had a comprehensive database of the trans fat content of commonly eaten foods in the United States. There had been some measurements made, but it was haphazard as to what was measured. We obtained data from different laboratories and also set up an analysis system so we could measure trans fats in foods and continually update the analyses. It was a lot of work, because the manufacturing process was changing over time and if we didn’t keep updating that information we would have missed what was happening.So this was a big effort by many people in our group over 30 years and our findings turned out to be extremely controversial. The main heart disease prevention establishment had pretty much decided that saturated fat was the problem. They really attacked us for raising this distraction, that trans fat might be a problem, as did the food industry for different reasons. We were very much by ourselves out on a limb for quite a while. But we kept accumulating data. And other people looked at this and virtually everyone found that trans fat was a problem.Q: You’re clearly no stranger to controversy. Do you have any advice to students and young researchers coming up for when they get a result that they think might be unpopular?A: Well, there’s no question that having the best and strongest data is most fundamentally important. That is the good thing about science: There is a process of replication and improvement of data quality. And sometimes it’s not at all a straight line process, but doing everything possible to have the best data possible is certainly the first thing to do. I think that there has been a debate within science, at least within epidemiology, whether scientists should be engaged in discussions about the interpretation of results and policy. Some say, “No, just publish the data, your responsibility ends there: Somebody else should interpret the data. Leave that to the policymakers.” But I think if that’s what I had done, our findings would have just been buried. Policymakers, most of them, don’t understand the issues nearly as well as the people working with the data. And there were powerful interests, both from the well-intended cardiovascular prevention community and also the economically influenced manufacturing industry, that really wanted to have these results ignored or dismissed. So I think at certain times, and with care and caution to be as objective as possible, it is appropriate to be part of that discussion and not let potentially important findings be buried.Q: What about the personal challenge of managing controversy? Do you need to take a deep breath when you know the fight is coming? Do you ever think, “Geez, this may not be worth it?”A: Well, yeah, you have to develop thick skin, I guess. You can get attacked for things that are just completely untrue. One of the whisper campaigns [was that] I was bought out by the olive oil industry — when I never got a penny from the olive oil industry — and things like that. So you do have to have thick skin. And it’s important to recognize it’s possible that your data are wrong. Every study has the possibility of getting a wrong answer for many different reasons and that’s why it is really important that there be confirmatory evidence. And then it also does depend on whether it’s something that’s important enough to be worth a fight. But in this case it was. We calculated that the number of deaths per year potentially due to trans fat in the diet were running in the tens of thousands. That’s not trivial and it was worth spending the extra effort, not allowing this to get buried, which would have been most convenient for many parties.Q: How about missteps along the way? Have there been mistakes you regretted? How do you handle that sort of thing and how do you recover from it?A: We had a couple of events that fortunately didn’t make a big difference in the long run. We did have [one] when we were launching the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, our cohort of men. It almost crashed at the beginning because of a programming error — made by someone no longer here — that resulted in each ID number being sent to 10 different people. Of course, we take great effort to have questionnaires come back to us [without] names and addresses to maintain confidentiality. We realized pretty quickly when we started getting mail returns that we were in deep trouble. Fortunately, many people did send back their questionnaire with a name and address on the envelope. If that was true we could right away identify the person. But not everybody did, so we spent two years and many resources sorting that out. We eventually had to exclude several hundred people, which wasn’t too bad out of 50,000. So we have had technical issues like that, even though we have quite a bit of quality control, redundancy, and safety checks. Basically, I believe in Murphy’s Law, that if something can go wrong, it will go wrong, as a very fundamental principle, and I spend a fair amount of time thinking about what might go wrong. Still, to this day, new issues arise that we didn’t anticipate. There’s almost never too much quality control and redundancy in big studies like this where so much is at stake.We just had a paper in BMJ [in which] there was one variable that was misinterpreted slightly by one person in our group and almost every number in the manuscript was off by a slight amount. It was something that didn’t change any conclusions, but we still had to correct it. I think we have never had … of the thousands of papers we published, an error that changed conclusions, but we’ve had a few small errors that we wish we’d avoided, and work hard to prevent those.Q: What advice do you have for a young researcher starting out today?A: I found it tremendously useful to have had experiences from a wide variety of fields that may sometimes seem disconnected. However, that’s where the interesting new connections often arise and how we can bring a different perspective to an unsolved problem. This may not work for every field, but at least for [those going into] public health, I would encourage a young researcher to take every opportunity to see the world from a different perspective. That may turn out to be very useful in an unpredictable way, and if not, it will have made your life more interesting. Obviously, we need to dig down deeply into our research topic, but too often we’re only told to focus, focus, focus. Finding the right balance between focusing and having a broad perspective is critical.Q: What, to your mind, is most exciting in public health today?A: I think one of the big frontiers is the mind and the central nervous system. We know less about that than about other organ systems and relatively little about the causes of Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, so we’re putting more emphasis on that. The timing is good. When we started and our participants were relatively young, there was almost none of that [Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s] in our cohort. Now, with three or four decades of data, people are developing these kinds of conditions, so we can connect what people were doing 30 and 40 years ago with their mental function and cognitive function.The whole area of the microbiome is very interesting. For decades, we thought the fecal microbiome was really important, but didn’t really have the tools to study it. We did some pilot work back in the early ’80s and our dietitian said, “If you do one more stool collection like that, I’m quitting.” We had to have fresh feces, with viable organisms. Now, by analyzing the genes, you don’t have to have the living bacteria.It [also] goes back to what got me interested in nutrition in the first place. On a global basis, there are huge issues about being able to feed the world’s population a healthy diet in a sustainable way. This is a major issue and it goes back to the farm and the way we’re producing food now. We still have our family farm in Michigan, run by an uncle, but it is unrecognizable now. It was small fields and hedgerows, just teeming with biodiversity. It’s all [been] flattened into massive fields of corn, of soybean, which is what has happened across our country. When we look at the grain produced in the United States, only about 10 percent is eaten by Americans. Most is fed to animals and converted to ethanol for fuel.I’ve seen the world change before my eyes. We have a little place in New Hampshire, a little island called Toad Island because there were toads all over the island when we bought it in the 1970s. This last summer, there were zero toads. And we went to a little field where there’s milkweed and there’s always lots of monarch butterflies — there were no monarchs this year. And, of course, the honeybee population is precarious. There’s obviously multiple factors operating here, but we are destroying the biome’s diversity very rapidly. The fact that extinction is happening right before my eyes is amazing and profoundly disturbing. So, somehow, we have to have some constraints and some limits to the way we are dealing with our environment to maintain biodiversity and, in the end, produce healthy food in a sustainable way. That will be a very big issue in the coming decades.Interview was edited for clarity and length.last_img read more

first_imgReport: State Could Improve Policy, Offset Oil CostsNRDC Report Says Transportation Planning Can Buffer Automotive Fuel CostsVermont could be doing more to protect its citizens from the high costsof fuel oil for our cars and trucks, according to a new report releasedby the Natural Resources Defense Council, a national environmentalgroup.States that adopt laws to promote clean and efficient vehicles, preventsprawl, and invest in public transit, are helping protect their citizensfrom high oil prices, according to the report, “Fighting Oil Addiction:Ranking States’ Oil Vulnerability and Solutions for Change.””Based on this report, the results for Vermont are mixed,” said BrianShupe, the sustainable communities director and energy co-director forthe Vermont Natural Resources Council. “Despite our green image andreputation for forward-thinking policy, this report shows that Vermontis not among the most innovative states when it comes to taking steps toreduce our reliance on oil for transportation.”The report highlights two critical areas related to our nation’saddiction to oil: vulnerability to high oil prices and implementation bystates of policy alternatives and solutions.Vermont ranks 16th among the 50 states with regard to the specificpolicy steps the state is taking to cut down on oil use, but ithighlights some gaps. The report also shows that the state is relativelyvulnerable to high oil prices based on Vermonters’ incomes. According tothe report, Vermont motorists spent an average of $1,856 on gasoline in2007. This amounts to 5.1 percent of the average income, making thestate the 31st most vulnerable to high oil prices. The report does notconsider oil use for heating.One area in which the NRDC report finds Vermont lagging relates togrowth management and planning.”Several states have an agency that coordinates development policieswith state spending decisions to promote smart growth and avoid sprawl,”Shupe explained, “but Vermont lacks such an entity. We did get pointsfor Act 200 (Vermont’s planning and growth management law), although thestate agency planning requirements of that law have been ignored forover a decade.”The report also noted that Vermont lacks a target for reducing vehiclemiles traveled by Vermonters. Between 2000 and 2005, the average numberof vehicle miles traveled increased by 11 percent.”This is largely because we’re developing communities that are notwalkable and are difficult to serve by transit,” Shupe said. “Greaterefforts to promote smart growth, avoid scattered, low densitydevelopment and invest in alternative transportation are critical toreducing our vulnerability to sticker shock at the gas pump.”According to the report, the five states implementing the mostcomprehensive policies to reduce oil use are California, followed by NewYork, Connecticut, Washington and Pennsylvania. In New England, RhodeIsland, Maine and Massachusetts also rank ahead of Vermont.For a copy of the full report go to www.nrdc.org/media/2008/080722.asp(link is external)last_img read more